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[FKNP11] V. Forejt, M. Kwiatkowska, G. Norman and D. Parker. Automated Verification Techniques for Probabilistic Systems. In M. Bernardo and V. Issarny (editors), Formal Methods for Eternal Networked Software Systems (SFM'11), volume 6659 of LNCS, pages 53-113, Springer. June 2011. [pdf] [bib]
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Notes: Accompanying PRISM files are available here. The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com.
Front cover Abstract. This tutorial provides an introduction to probabilistic model checking, a technique for automatically verifying quantitative properties of probabilistic systems. We focus on Markov decision processes (MDPs), which model both stochastic and nondeterministic behaviour. We describe methods to analyse a wide range of their properties, including specifications in the temporal logics PCTL and LTL, probabilistic safety properties and cost- or reward-based measures. We also discuss multi-objective probabilistic model checking, used to analyse trade-offs between several different quantitative properties. Applications of the techniques in this tutorial include performance and dependability analysis of networked systems, communication protocols and randomised distributed algorithms. Since such systems often comprise several components operating in parallel, we also cover techniques for compositional modelling and verification of multi-component probabilistic systems. Finally, we describe three large case studies which illustrate practical applications of the various methods discussed in the tutorial.